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Electromagnetic Radiation Worksheet Answer Key Chapter 19

Chapter 1 Vibrations and Waves Review Questions pg. 1

Chapter 1 Vibrations and Waves Review Questions pg. 1 | Electromagnetic Radiation Worksheet Answer Key Chapter 19

Summary: Two chief PLA Air Force colonels wrote “Unrestricted Warfare”, presented actuality in arbitrary translation, to analyze how technology addition is ambience off a anarchy in aggressive tactics, activity and organization. “Unrestricted Warfare” discusses new types of warfare which may be conducted by civilians as able-bodied as by soldiers including computer hacker attacks, barter wars and accounts wars. “Unrestricted Warfare” provides acumen into the cerebration of some Chinese aggressive theorists about the appulse of science and abstruse change on China and added countries. Abounding Chinese books and magazines on aggressive capacity accept appeared this year. Overviews of three added contempo books by a Civic Aegis University Assistant on innovations on the acquaint of the Gulf and Kosovo wars forth with his reflections on post-Kosovo U.S. – China relations are provided in the addendum to this aboriginal of four summaries of “Unrestricted Warfare”. End summary. 

Two PLA Air Force chief colonels, Qiao Liang [STC: 0829 5328] of the PLA Air Force Political Department and Wang Xiangsui [STC: 3769 3276 4482] of the Guangzhou Aggressive District PLA Air Force Political Department, appear “Unrestricted Warfare” – Assumptions on War and Approach in the Age of Globalization” in February 1999. Rather than analytical new aggressive technologies, the two chief colonels booty a footfall aback and altercate how the advancing of assorted new technologies in accepted is in about-face bringing changes in aggressive tactics, strategies and organization. “Unrestricted Warfare” is accounting in a bright and animated style.

The big account implications of abstruse change for the Chinese aggressive in “Unrestricted Warfare” appear into angle aback we accede how in both the noncombatant and aggressive spheres, accurate and abstruse change depend on far added than science and technology as almost defined. The best important applications of new technologies as able-bodied as the authoritative changes and amusing and business adaptations bare to accomplish the best use of these technologies are not consistently credible at first. Aggressive aerial technology depends added on the breeze of innovations from the noncombatant economy. In both the noncombatant and aggressive sectors, it takes time to apprentice how to use a new technology effectively. Abstruse change in China as in added societies is generally hindered by a arrangement of economic, amusing and political obstacles.

The apathetic adjustment of Chinese business to computers over the accomplished two decades is one example. Examinations of the Y2K bearings in China appearance that in abounding sectors breadth computers accept appear into advanced use, organizations abide to do business abounding as they did before. They accept not fabricated the abolitionist cuts in their assignment force that computerization would assume to accomplish possible. Among the affidavit may be that abounding companies, abnormally state-run enterprises, do not feel the burden to accomplish aching ability convalescent changes that stockholders appeal of market-oriented companies in Western countries.

Other obstacles to abstruse addition in China accommodate the charge to accumulate staffing aerial admitting abstruse innovations, aback ample application cuts ability abuse amusing stability. Constant and generally accidental arrest by government in business decisions, abnormally in arctic China, additionally apathetic the advance of abstruse innovations and added best practices. Indeed, the catechism “why don�t best practices spread” added rapidly is one of the best important questions adverse adopted abstruse abetment programs in China. The acknowledgment seems to be the abounding Chinese walls amid and aural organizations and the weakness of bazaar incentives compared with the authoritative ability of the command abridgement in abounding areas.

Professor Zhang Zhaozhong in his September 1999 book “Who is the Abutting Target?” (overview in appendix) credibility to the acceptance band at the U.S. Admiral as bright affirmation of a academician cesspool and argues that China charge ameliorate its system, use animal aptitude added finer and pay bigger in adjustment to absorb talent. If it does not, Zhang says, China will accept abounding adversity advantageous its twenty-year lag abaft the United States in all-embracing accurate and abstruse development.

During this year of the Kosovo War, the mistaken bombing of the PRC Admiral in Belgrade and cross-strait tensions, there has been a flood of books and accessories about war, aggressive activity and comparisons of the strengths of acreage and Taiwan forces. Aggressive admiral such as the PLA chief colonels who wrote “Unrestricted Warfare” and the absolute abounding Civic Aegis University Assistant Zhang Zhaozhong accurate added counterbalanced angle on U.S. – China relations than some accepted Chinese writers.

The September 1999 “Who is the Abutting Target” by Zhang Zhaozhong reflects this acknowledgment appearance in his application of the abatement of the USSR on p. 127.

“The case of Russia makes us apprehend that mutually benign relations and coexistence with the United States, Japan, France and added big countries are important for all. It is not a amount of one ancillary allurement the added aback it charge be based on civic interests and on the axiological accent of developing our country. It is this that makes relations amid countries move forward.

“That there are contradictions and disputes amid China and the United States and added countries is normal. Too abutting a accord or an accord is aberrant aback every country charge consistently accede its own audible civic interests. International relations are altered from claimed friendships. Although the Kosovo War occurred and hegemonism and ability backroom are all too boundless in the world, accord and development are still the basic band of development for the twenty-first century…. Yet there are still bodies in the West who appetite to abort us or bisect us, so we charge anticipate about our civic aegis and not aloof about peace, development and authoritative money,” wrote Assistant Zhang Zhaozhong.

Three 1999 books by Civic Aegis University Assistant Zhang Zhaozhong are declared in the addendum below. The three books are:

— Who Will Win the Abutting War? (March 1999)

— How Far is War From Us? (July 1999)

— Who is the Abutting Target? (September 1999)

Zhang Zhaozhong, administrator of the Aggressive Science and Technology Apprenticeship and Analysis Office at Civic Aegis University is frequently interviewed in the Chinese media.

Several added Admiral Beijing letters and Chinese columnist excerpts on the circle of EST and aegis issues are accessible on the U.S. Admiral web folio at http://www.usembassy-china.org.cn/english/sandt/index.html

These accommodate several letters on advice aegis and a 1998 book by a PLA Navy Captain who sees ecology abasement and accustomed ability burning as China’s best important aegis concerns. 

“Unrestricted Warfare”-Thoughts on War and Activity in a All-around Era [Chaoxianzhan – dui quanqiuhua shidai zhanzheng yu zhanfa de xiangding] by Qiao Liang and Wang Xiangsui was appear February 1999 by People�s Liberation Army Arts Publishers (Address: Jiefangjun Wenyi Chubanshe, Baishiqiao #42, Beijing 100081)

This is the aboriginal of a four allotment arbitrary adjustment of “Unrestricted Warfare”. FBIS began arising a affiliate by affiliate adjustment of “Unrestricted Warfare” afterwards we had about completed our arbitrary of the book.

[Page numbers in argument beneath accredit to the aboriginal copy of “Unrestricted Warfare”. Abounding branch headings accept been added for the accessibility of the reader.]

Advances in science and technology are authoritative dreams appear true. Wonderful toys appear consistently from Bell Labs and from Sony. Bill Gates makes a new adaptation of Windows every year. With the cloning of the sheep “Dolly”, flesh seems to be blame alike the Creator aside. The alarming SU-27 Russian fighter aircraft has never apparent activity and the SU-35 fighter is now accessible but abounding accept doubts whether it will be a acknowledged airplane. (p. 2, 8) Technology is like a abracadabra slipper. Once the accumulation motive is involved, all the draft is aloof beat your heels and say breadth you appetite to go!

Many new technologies appear in abounding altered fields so to say that we alive in the nuclear age or the advice age is to slight important technologies in added fields. Abounding new fields such as biotechnology, abstracts technology and advice science interpenetrate anniversary other. New technologies become old technologies absolute quickly. Conceivably one day a technology that humankind cannot ascendancy will appear and abort us all. Yet altruism consistently accuse advanced analytic for newer and bigger technologies. Solutions to abstruse problems generally accompany with them new problems that charge be solved. The best important of these new arising technologies is advice technology. Technologies can absolutely no best be application singly. Advice technology helps alloy calm an arrangement of new technologies. [pp. 3-5]

Armies charge ever-newer technologies and acquiescent soldiers who can handle them. In the Gulf War 500 new technologies developed during the 1980s were used. The Gulf War became a advertise of avant-garde weaponry. Yet the best important assignment was not the technologies themselves but the allocation trend to be apparent in the development and use of these weapons. Booty the “Patriot” missile that intercepted the Scuds. Superficially like cutting birds with a rifle, the activity of missile interception is abounding added complex. It appropriate allocation above bisected the globe. A accessory acquires the target, sends a admonishing to a arena base in Australia, which sends a arresting by way of the Mount Cheyenne Command Centermost to the Command Centermost in Riyadh which orders the Patriot aggregation to adapt to blaze the Patriot missile. This admonishing date takes 90 seconds. Abounding weapons systems now affected barriers to time and space: article doubtful afore the acceleration of advice technology. Afore Apple War II a audible weapon could accompany about a anarchy in aggressive affairs. No longer. Now no one weapon dominates.  

The aggregate of technologies for war in the all-around era accept concluded the ascendancy of weapons in war. From this new baseline the relations of weapons to war accept afflicted and fabricated the abstraction of war itself vague. Is a hacker advance an act of war? Is application banking accoutrement to abort a country�s abridgement and act of war? Did the CNN address of the anatomy of an American soldier actuality abject through the streets of Mogadishu, Somalia sap the will of Americans to accelerate their soldiers out to be the policemen of the apple and so change the apple cardinal balance? Aback we adjudge aloof what is an act of war do we attending at methods or effects? According to the accepted analogue of war, there is no way to appear to a satisfactory acknowledgment to these questions.

When we accede that any one of these non-war activities could be elements of the new affectionate war of the approaching we accept to accord this new affectionate of war that transcends boundaries and limits: “Unrestricted Warfare”.  

“Unrestricted Warfare” agency that any methods can be able for use, advice is everywhere, the battlefield is everywhere, and that any technology ability be accumulated with any added technology, and that the boundaries amid war and non-war and amid aggressive and non-military diplomacy has systematically burst down. [pp. 6-7]  

The anarchy in ammunition created the altitude for a anarchy in aggressive affairs. Every new weapon creates the achievability of new approach and strategy. This was accurate for the crossbow, for armament aloof as it is for the aerial technology weapons of today. Once a audible new weapon could accompany about a anarchy in aggressive affairs. Now, aback added and added weapons accept been invented, the accent of any one weapon has decreased. Excluding the use of nuclear weapons, of course, which as time goes by seems added and added unlikely. It is not artlessly a amount of aerial tech warfare” or “information warfare”. What is aerial tech? Logically aerial tech agency article in affiliation to article abroad that is low tech. So it is a about term. The M-60 catchbasin and the B-52 bomber, as articles of the technology of the 1960s and 1970s (sic) are low tech compared with the Abrams tank, the F-117 and the Patriot missile. Yet these aerial tech weapons attending out of date compared with the B-2, the F-22, and the Comanche helicopter. Technology consistently changes, so what is aerial tech? [pp. 12- 13]

Adding advice apparatus to all weapons does not an advice war make. These ability be alleged informatized weapons. The F-22 for all its informatized functions is still a fighter plane. Informatized warfare in its ample faculty and advice war in the attenuated faculty are two absolutely altered things. The above uses advice functionality to strengthen absolute weapons; the closing uses advice as a apparatus or suppresses advice in adjustment to activity a war. An boundless accent on advice technologies aloof puts money into Bill Gates� abridged and neglects added important ascent technologies such as abstracts technology and biotechnology. [p. 14]

“Uses the weapons you accept to activity a war” and “Depending aloft the war that you will activity actualize the weapons that you will need” are two absolute altered conceptions that allegorize the aberration amid the wars of the accomplished and the wars of the future. Now “use the weapons you accept to activity a war” is still absolute important. Finding the optimal aggregate of weapons accessible and application them to their best adequacy is essential. It is not aloof astern countries that booty do this actively. The U.S. as able-bodied needs to do this if it is to activity a modern, big-ticket war. The abandoned aberration amid the astern country in the United States in the best that it is affected to accomplish is that the United States has added to accept from.

Finding the appropriate aggregate of weapons can not abandoned accomplish up for the weaknesses of altered ancestors of weapons, it can be a “force multiplier” of weapons effectiveness. One archetype is the use of the B-52 adviser as it neared the end of its account activity as a ablution belvedere for cruise missiles and added attention guided weapons. An A-10 aircraft with bittersweet missiles absorbed to its exoteric assets a night advance adequacy it never had before. Moreover, accumulation the A-10 with the Apache helicopter makes a abundantly able angry force. [15 � 16]

The weapons markets of today affection and anytime accretion arrangement of weapons and abounding sources for weapons. These channels accomplish a advanced ambit of choices possible. Altered ancestors of weapons can be accumulated to advance old prejudices about weapon generation, use, and combinations of weapons. The anachronistic weapon can become a admiration weapon. A awesome acceptance that the absolute latest weapon is bare to activity avant-garde war ability advance paradoxically to a bearings in which the admiration weapon turns out to be a dud. We are in a capricious aeon in a weapons anarchy from which diminutive ability as the admeasurement of a weapon to a new aeon in which the advice is admeasurement of a weapon. We accept no way of admiration how continued this aeon will last. Until the alteration to the abutting date is complete, any country, including the United States chief what weapons to use to activity which war will be the actuate the accord amid weapons and the angry of wars. Although this assumption is the best axiological one, it is conceivably not an abiding principle. [17]

The advance of accurate and abstruse advance is beneath and beneath apprenticed irenic by discoveries that appear forth and added and added by directed research. The “depending aloft the war that you will fight, actualize the weapons that you will need” that the Americans adduce has brought about the bigger change in the accord amid weapons and approach aback war began. In aboriginal chief how a war will be fought and again developing weapons, the Americans “ate their aboriginal crab” in the “integrated air-land battlefield”. The “digitized battlefield” and the “digitized activity units” are the aboriginal efforts in this direction. This adjustment is aggressive the aphorism that changes in ammunition consistently announce revolutions in aggressive affairs. A new alternate accord amid weapons and approach is emerging. The acceptation of weapons is additionally changing. No best are abandoned weapons but rather weapons systems are actuality developed. The F-111 was not able to be acclimated finer in aggregate with added weapons and became an big-ticket lesson. The abstraction that one or two weapons abandoned will be the analgesic weapons that will abort enemies has become obsolete.

“Depending aloft the war that you will fight, actualize the weapons that you will need” is a two-edged sword. It offers alive choices and a adjustment to accost a all-inclusive arrangement of possibilities. It is a abounding advance in aggressive history yet it additionally conceals with itself a abounding hazard of avant-garde warfare. Who are you fighting? The U.S. aggressive in Somalia begin that it could not handle crowds on the artery as it approved to activity an adversary that acclimated anarchistic tactics. On the battlefield of the future, a digitized units ability blackmailer units that use anarchistic tactics. The added afar the ancestors of aggressive technology acclimated by opposing sides, the harder it is for them to activity to a resolution. Aerial tech troops accept adversity angry anarchistic wars and opponents angry low-tech wars. [pp. 17 � 18]

[Note on p. 31 on this section: (12) In the November 1998 affair of “National Aegis University Journal” Chen Bojiang discusses his account with Chairman Philip Aodien [?] of the Aegis Subcommittee of the U.S. Congress. During the interview, Aodien said several times that the greatest blackmail to the United States is “asymmetric war”.]

Nearly all the weapons that accept been invented up to the present day can be alleged old abstraction weapons. The old abstraction agency that a weapons can be characterized abundantly by its advancement and its destructiveness. Alike aerial tech weapons like attention guided bombs are aloof weapons to which some able functionality has been added. These kinds of weapons are advised to be acclimated by able soldiers on a categorical battlefield. Yet these weapons and weapons platforms are a asleep end as far as the wars of the approaching are concerned. These efforts to adorn accepted weapons with aerial tech are bedevilled by the massive spending in aerial tech accoutrements races.

In adjustment to advance weapons ahead ever-higher sums charge be spent. Which no nation can allow in the end. The final aftereffect is that the weapons congenital to avert the country end up active the country into bankruptcy. The Soviet aggressive theorist Aoerjiakefu was the aboriginal to see the advancing anarchy in aggressive affairs. Yet his anticipation paradoxically was one of the agency that collection the USSR into defalcation by accelerating the accoutrements chase with the United States and so arch to unsustainable Soviet aggressive spending. A abounding ascendancy collapse afterwards a attempt actuality accursed aloof as Gibbons wrote: an ascendancy ends with a whimper, not with a roar.

The United States is walking bottomward the aforementioned aisle as the USSR. Anniversary new bearing of weapons costs added to advance and produce. The F-15s and F-16s of the 1960s and 70s amount USD 1 billion, the B2 USD 10 billion and the F-22 USD 13 billion. The B-2 adviser at USD 1.3 billion anniversary amount three times their weight in gold. Weapons such as the Comanche helicopter is authoritative the accoutrements of the U.S. [pp. 19 � 20]

New abstraction weapons are agriculture up everywhere. What is a little arbitrary is that the Americans advance in this area, too. The U.S. acclimated argent iodide crumb and defoliants to advice ascertain soldiers walking on the Ho Chi Minh aisle during the Vietnam War. The aggregate of abstruse backbone and banking assets makes the U.S. unparalleled in this area. Although Americans are acceptable at authoritative new abstraction weapons, they are abnormally acceptable at advancing up with new weapons concepts � application the weapons in aboriginal ways. That requires a analytical and abstract cerebration not the backbone of the Americans who are applied bodies acceptable at advancing up with new technologies.

New weapons concepts are absolutely altered from new abstraction weapons. New weapons concepts is a ample apperception of weapons that transcends the aggressive acreage � whatever adjustment can be acclimated to activity a war is a weapon. In this view, whatever provides allowances to flesh can additionally be angry about to be a weapon to abuse mankind. That is to say that there is annihilation in the apple that cannot become a weapon. This smashes our apperception of aloof what a weapon is. Aloof as technology is adding the cardinal of altered kinds of weapons, new cerebration break bottomward the acumen amid weapon and non-weapon. To our way of thinking, a planned banal bazaar crash, a computer virus attack, authoritative the bill barter amount of an adversary country erratic, and overextension rumors on the Internet about the leaders of an adversary country can all be anticipation of as new abstraction weapons. This new way of cerebration puts weapons into the circadian lives of civilians. New abstraction weapons can accomplish of war article that alike aggressive professionals will acquisition adamantine to imagine. Both soldiers and civilians will be abashed to see items in their accustomed lives become weapons that can advance and kill. [pp. 21 � 22]

Until the diminutive bomb came on the stage, wars were fought in an ambiance in which the ability to annihilate and abuse the adversary was scarce. The history of ammunition is the adventure of a abiding access in killing and abolition capability. Afterwards the augment billow rose over the plains of New Mexico, aggressive bodies got the ability to absolutely abort their enemies hundreds and bags of times over. They had an balance of killing ability for the aboriginal time in history.

There is a assumption in aesthetics that whenever article alcove its extreme, it charge again about-face its direction. [Note: in Chinese the acclaimed aphorism “wuji bifan”. End note] Nuclear weapons were a asleep end. What acceptable is it to abort enemies a thousand times over and to abort the Earth? Mutual Assured Abolition (MAD) and the Antithesis of Alarm are the after-effects of that situation. A new trend appeared in weaponry, appear greater attention and control. Afterwards the Second Apple War, abhorrence at the aggressiveness of nuclear weapons resulted in a anathema adjoin their use. Moreover, technology fabricated it added accessible to advance the affection of an adversary with beneath damage. Added options fabricated it accessible for the ambition to become establishing ascendancy over rather than killing and maiming the enemy. War concepts and weapons concepts changed. The abstraction of banishment an absolute abandonment through absolute killing and wars with battles like Verdun became obsolete. [pp. 23 � 24]

Precision and non-lethal weapons appeared. The weapons development ambition was not backbone but “greater mercy”. A attention weapon hits on ambition and causes beneath accessory accident in a surgical strike. An archetype is the way the Russians acclimated a cellular blast arresting and a guided missile to abutting consistently the aperture of the Chechen baton Tudayafu [transliteration]. Non-lethal weapons abort the activity adequacy of soldiers and weapons but does not annihilate people. In the Gulf War, the cardinal of Iraqi civilians numbered aloof a few thousand � far beneath than were asleep in the bombing of Dresden during the Second Apple War. A catchbasin ability be defeated by explosives or by lasers than blinds the soldiers in the tank. On a battlefield, an adversary is abounding added by the blood-soaked who charge abetment than by the dead, who charge none. Wounding rather than killing soldiers creates alarm in added soldiers and almighty anti-war advertising for the bodies aback home. Yet we should not abatement into the allurement of cerebration that “merciful weapons” will eventually advance to anesthetic wars played on computers.

[Note: Footnotes on this affiliate on pp. 28 � 33 accept abounding references to American aggressive writings on these subjects. End note]

Ever aback hunters angry their hunting weapons into weapons of war, war has been composed of three elements: soldiers, weapons and battlefields. This is all alteration now. According to Clausewitz, “War is the addendum of politics.” Yet wars accept been fought for abounding reasons. The Opium War Britain fought adjoin China charge accept been the bigger accompaniment biologic advance advance of all history. Hitler fought for active allowance for the German people. The Japanese fought for their East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere. With the end of the Algid War abounding accept had to face the difficult question, “Who is the enemy?” The old Algid War slogans accept absent their force. Now alliances about-face frequently. The U.S. helped Iran activity Iraq, but anon thereafter Iran became the adversary of the U.S. The old adage is still true: “Countries accept no abiding friends, abandoned abiding interests.” We can see this in the war over the Iraqi acquisition of Kuwait. The U.S. and added affiliated countries (and the soldiers fighting) alleged it a war to deliver Kuwait, but absolutely it was fought over Middle East oil. In war, generally the apparent algid and the absolute algid are two altered things. [pp. 34 � 38]

Technology has afflicted breadth the battlefields are. The Aboriginal Apple War was fought in trenches forth a absolute continued line. The old battlefields of acid wire and apparatus accoutrements were slaughterhouses. Rapid advances in technology has confused war from two to three dimensions. New weapons accord acceleration to new strategies. The British Accepted John Fredrich Fuller showed this for tanks in his archetypal “Tanks in the Abounding War” as did the Italian Guilio Douhet did for airpower in his book “The Acquisition of the Air” and the Russian Tuheqiefusuji [transliteration] for accommodating command on the battlefield. Ludendorff who fought the Russian in Poland and the Western admiral at Verdun was a backer of absolute war both on and off the battlefield. In Apple War II Hitler didn�t apprehend that he was authoritative a cardinal anarchy aback in application continued ambit missiles like the V-1 and the V-2 he asleep the abuttals amid the battlefront and the rear. Advances in technology due to satellites, submarines, electromagnetic radiation and guided missiles accept added continued the battlefield to about every bend of our world.  

The aggregate of weapons systems can actualize a new affectionate of abstruse amplitude � a new battlefield that never existed before. Electronic and advice technologies accept created a net space, which can become a battlefield. The battlefield extends accompanying at the micro, medium-range and macro akin as able-bodied as in assorted amalgam abstruse spaces in agency in never did before. The admeasurement of weapons and technologies has blurred the acumen amid the soldiers and civilians and amid the battlefield and the non-battlefield. The battlefield is everywhere. From a computer allowance or on from the trading attic of a banal barter a baleful advance on a adopted country can be launched. In such a apple is there anywhere that is not a battlefield? Breadth is the battlefield? It is everywhere. [pp. 38 � 42] 

Beginning with the “one actor man reduction” in the admeasurement of the Chinese aggressive in 1985, the militaries of the apple accept been abbreviation their manpower. Some said this was because of the end of the Algid War. Yet the added important acumen was the abstruse anarchy that fabricated ample armies inefficient and fabricated a abate force with college abstruse training added able than a above force. The new technology afflicted aggressive cerebration and the approach of war. In the new apple in which alike nuclear war may become an anachronistic concept, the astigmatic abecedarian may be a bigger applicant for the soldier of the approaching than a big, finer congenital person. One archetype may be a September 1995 U.S. Aegis Department analysis in which a USAF administrator with a computer and modem bankrupt into a U.S. Navy command and ascendancy center.  

Rapidly alteration technologies is creating a big bearing gap in militaries. The bearing gap is manifesting itself both physically and mentally. Alike the West Point “beast barracks” may not be able to boom out of these adolescent bodies the weak, bookish addiction abiding in them by abreast society. Attacks above beheld ambit accomplish it accessible to accomplish a blood-soaked advance on the adversary all afterwards accepting one�s clothes dirty. The agenda adhesive of tomorrow is abrasion the position of the old claret and adamant warrior of attitude added than anytime before. [pp. 42 � 43]  

Information technologies accept acclimatized the analysis of activity in automated society. War is no best the bottle of able soldiers. The accretion captivation of civilians in war is far from the “People�s War” of Mao Zedong�s approach aback it is not the masses of bodies but a technically-trained aristocratic of civilians that is accepting circuitous in aggressive affairs. Who will comedy the basic role in the abutting war? Able aggressive bodies or noncombatant technicians? The aboriginal and arch claiming to appear appropriately far is from the computer hackers. Hackers, mostly bodies afterwards aggressive training who await abandoned on their own abstruse skills, calmly access aggressive and civic aegis computer systems. In 1994 a 16-year old hacker in England penetrated some U.S. aggressive and government systems. An advance by a 16 year old is not an act of war. But how again do we actuate what an act of war is? What is a noncombatant activity and what is a non-professional aggressive act of war? How abounding of the 230,000 of attacks on U.S. DoD computer systems in 1994 were organized? There is no way to know. [p. 44] 

Computer networks accept greater and greater influences on apple affairs. Hackers and abounding non-hackers abnormality on the computer networks of the apple act according to their own belief � they are not apprenticed by the arena rules of association at large. They can use the web to claiming evil. One archetype is the beholder to attacks on indigenous Chinese in Indonesia by the Chinese aggressive who bankrupt the Suharto government�s advice embargo by putting a address on the web that woke up the apple to these atrocities. The Indonesian aggressive stood accused afore the world. A hacker alleged MilwOrm as a beef adjoin Indian diminutive bomb tests bankrupt into the India Diminutive Analysis Centermost web site, afflicted the web folio and downloaded 5 megabytes of data. A hacker ability in some cases accept the aforementioned appulse as an diminutive bomb. [p. 45] 

Some non-state organizations are bigger threats to the apple than hackers are. These accommodate the Islamic Jihad, the noncombatant militias of the United States, the Omu Church of Japan, and Ben Laden who blew up the U.S. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania. A accompaniment application bound agency has abounding adversity acquisition a non-state alignment accommodating to use absolute means. These non-state organizations and non-professional soldiers accept agitated out a cardinal of aggressive activities but additionally a cardinal of non-military wars. These bodies are not consistently hackers � they ability be computer systems analysts, software engineers, banal manipulators, financiers who move all-inclusive amounts of basic internationally, or accumulation media kings and alike bi-weekly columnists or TV hosts. These bodies accept their own behavior that they ascendancy no beneath acerb than Ben Laden does. From this perspective, how can one abjure that George Soros is a banking terrorist?

[Note: Mainstream Chinese economists do not see George Soros as a “financial terrorist”. A Chinese economist told ESTOFF Chinese economists argued adjoin Malaysian colleagues captivation this appearance in a 1998 Hong Kong appointment on the Asian Bread-and-butter Crisis. Chinese bookstores today accept several admiring biographies of George Soros. Some Chinese journalists and policymakers apparently allotment the appearance of the authors, however. End note] 

Modern technology has acclimatized weapons and the battlefield and fabricated down-covered the abstraction of the combatant. All-around terrorists, non-professional combatants, and non-state organizations are a growing blackmail to absolute states. Faced with these threats, the able solider of today resembles the great, able but ailing acclimatized dinosaur.

[pp. 46 � 47]


Appendix One: Contempo Books by Assistant Zhang Zhaozhong of Civic Aegis University

Who Will Win the Abutting War? [Shei neng ying xia yi chang zhanzheng] [published by China Youth Columnist [Zhongguo Qingnian Chubanshe], March 1999

How Far is War From Us? [Zhangzheng Li Women you duoyuan] appear by PLA Publishing House, July 1999 (580 pages)

Who is the Abutting Target?, [Xia yige mubiao shi shei?] appear by China Youth Columnist (404 pages)

An Overview of “Who Will Win the Abutting War”

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